Tuesday, May 19, 2020

About Architect Michael Graves and Postmodernism

Architect Michael Graves postmodernist designs were provocative and innovative. He brought color and playfulness to tall, office buildings, while at the same time designing everyday objects such as teakettles and kitchen trashcans for ordinary consumers. Paralyzed late in life, Graves also become a spokesman for universal design and Wounded Warriors. Background: Born: July 9, 1934 in Indianapolis, Indiana Died: March 12, 2015 in Princeton, New Jersey Education: University of Cincinnati, OhioHarvard UniversityFellow at the American Academy in Rome Important Buildings and Projects: Michael Graves home, New Jersey, now part of Michael Graves College at Kean University1982: Portland Building, Portland, Oregon1983: San Juan Capistrano Library, California1985: Humana Tower, Louisville, Kentucky1987-1990: The Dolphin and Swan Hotels, Orlando, Florida1990: Denver Public Library, Denver, Colorado1991: Team Disney Building, Burbank, California1993: U.S. Post Office, Celebration, Florida1995: Engineering Research Center, Cincinnati, Ohio1997: United States Federal Courthouse, Washington, DC1998-2000; 2013-2014: Washington Monument Illumination, Washington, DC2011: The Wounded Warrior Home Project at Fort Belvoir More Than Architecture: Household Designs Michael Graves has designed furnishings, artifacts, jewelry, and dinnerware for companies such as Disney, Alessi, Steuben, Phillips Electronics, and Black Decker. Graves is most famous for designing more than 100 products, ranging from a toilet brush to a $60,000 outdoor pavilion, for Target stores. Related People: Robert Venturi and Denise Scott BrownPhilip JohnsonPart of the New York Five,   subject of the MoMA exhibition and book Five Architects, along with Peter Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey,  Richard Meier and John HejdukDisney Architects Michael Graves Illness: In 2003, a sudden illness left Michael Graves paralyzed from the waist down. Confined to a wheelchair late in life, Graves combined his sophisticated and often whimsical approach to design with a deeper understanding of the importance of accessibility. Awards: 1979: Fellow of the American Institute of Architects (FAIA)1999: National Medal of Arts2001: Gold Medal, American Institute of Architects (AIA) More About Michael Graves: Michael Graves is often credited with moving American architectural thought from abstract modernism to post-modernism. Graves founded his practice in Princeton, New Jersey in 1964 and taught at Princeton University in New Jersey for 40 years. His works range from grand projects such as the Public Services Building in Portland Oregon to designs for furniture, teapots, and other household items. Borrowing heavily from the past, Graves often combined traditional details with whimsical flourishes. He was, perhaps, at his most playful when he designed the Dolphin and Swan Hotels for the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida. The Dolphin Hotel is a turquoise and coral pyramid. A 63-foot-dolphin sits on top, and water cascades down the side. The Swan Hotel has a gently curved roof-line topped with 7-foot swans. The two hotels are connected by an awning-sheltered walkway over a lagoon. What Others Say About Graves: Michael couldn’t abide students who didn’t take their work seriously. But he was especially generous with those who did, and unlike most other teachers, he could draw every building he taught them. He was a consummate talent, an artist-architect, and a teacher who challenged how we think by how we see. Very few can do that. Very few ever try. Michael did try, and therein is the mark of a hero, a master of the discipline who passed on everything he knew.—Peter Eisenman, 2015 Learn More: Five Architects: Eisenman, Graves, Gwathmey, Hejduk, Meier Sources: Peter Eisenman quote from A Special Tribute to Michael Graves: 1934–2015 by Samuel Medina, Metropolis Magazine, May 2015; Michael Gravess Residence, Rejected by Princeton, Is to Be Sold to Kean University by Joshua Barone, The New York Times, June 27, 2016 at www.nytimes.com/2016/06/28/arts/design/michael-gravess-residence-rejected-by-princeton-set-for-sale-to-kean-university.html [accessed July 8, 2016]

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Rhetoric And Its Impact On Politics - 1157 Words

Rhetoric Is Being Misused In Politics Philosophers, such as Plato, Gorgias, Aristotle, had always been debating about rhetoric’s definition. However, commonly, they agree that it is a very strong and effective art, in which aiming for persuasion. Throughout the history, rhetoric has always been in a strong relation with politics. Politics is a very vague and furious world however, most people approach in order to better demonstrate a balanced social community thus a balanced country. Despite all the great usefulness that politics provide, the bad practices and Ideals of it has always led; globally and internationally, to fierce conflicts. These conflicts are also a result of the strong competitions between politicians over two main objects: power and money. It is agreed upon by philosophers that rhetoric benefits human greatly and in different ways, however, it is mostly used in politics as a tool in which serves one’s, Party’s, or group’s interests. The US 2016 Presidential Campaign, is a str ong example in which shows how some Candidates misuse rhetoric aiming to win the competition and serve their personal interests. The United Stated of America has a long history with political rhetoric, with different types and modes. â€Å"The transformation of partisan rhetoric in America presidential campaigns.1952-2012,† is an article by: Jesse H Rhodes, an Associate Professor in the Department of PoliticalShow MoreRelatedCommunication And The Digital Age1205 Words   |  5 Pagescommunication skills is essential as interaction with people, whether it is face to face, over the internet, or through the phone, is inevitable. However, evolving technology has resulted in a change in the way people communicate, especially in the field of politics. Thanks to technology information is now able to become widespread quickly. This high-speed information is changing the way in which political messages are conveyed. As technology has grown and developed the ability for information to spread andRead MoreWomen s Roles Of Reproduction1466 Words   |  6 PagesFeminists argued that women’s roles of reproduction and social attachments in the domestic sphere constituted an economy and class of its own. This was based on the role of motherhood and unpaid work at home. Millett (1969) contended in Sexual Politics for the existence of women’s sexuality that was detached from the motherhood and marriage obligations. Conversely, other lesbian authors such as Audre Lorde and Adrienne Rich utilized writing, speeches, and poetry in linking women’s oppression andRead MoreLincoln s Representation Of Lincoln1640 Words   |  7 Pagespopular responses to the representation of Lincoln in such movies. Movies help shape our vision of politics. Movies can also aid our understanding of political issues. Films can also dramatize stories and symbolize who we are as people and society. These are all solid reasons why films are an important aspect in helping us learn about history and politics. Many people get their history or politics from the media. The media can be anything from TV, radio, Movies, and the internet. The media helpsRead MoreAccording To Aristotle : The Three Modes Of Persuasion1483 Words   |  6 Pagesoften overlooked. However, if one is unable to persuade others effectively, they will never be taken seriously in a professional environment. In his book, Rhetoric, Aristotle spends quite a bit of time on the subject of persuasion. In fact, he defines rhetoric as, â€Å" the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion (Rhetoric). According to Aristotle, persuasion can be divided into three factions known as the three modes of persuasio n. Although the modes of persuasion can beRead MoreThe Rhetoric Of Celebrity Rhetoric1220 Words   |  5 Pages The rhetoric of celebrity endorsement in the current US political campaign In an age were social media sits at the forefront of global connectivity and communication, the political arena has never had been more exposed the unpredictable nature of public engagement and response. It shouldn’t come as a surprise that the formality and ceremony of traditional political engagement has, to an extent, been abandoned. Throughout the course of the 2016 US presidential election, celebrities have usedRead MoreGreening Energy Marketing1543 Words   |  6 Pagesevaluate how and why environmental imagery and rhetoric is appropriated by commercial interests, examine the implications of individuated, market-oriented and parodic discourse, and address the lack of substantive actions of these claim. Based on this research, this paper argues that under promotional culture, the appropriation of environmental responsibility rhetoric and imagery sterilizes environmental politics. The commercial uses of environmental politics is intimately connected to promotional cultureRead More Aristotle and the Techne of Rhetoric Essay1447 Words   |  6 PagesAristotle and the Techne of Rhetoric Between the third and fifth centuries B.C. there existed a â€Å"golden and classical age† of thought in the ancient world, with the majority of this activity centered in the polis of Athens, Greece. Although the city is historically recognized for its legendary conflict with rival polis Sparta, Athens is perhaps best known for the creation of democracy—that noble political experiment that laid the preliminary structure for most of the rights we AmericansRead MoreThe Immigration Problem Of Immigration1735 Words   |  7 Pagescrossings are often treated as criminal violations carrying overly punitive consequences such as incarceration in harsh detention centers. The ever-evolving assortment of laws and enforcement measures concerning immigration, as well as negative rhetoric in politics and media, has resulted in migrants being ascribed the stigma of ‘criminal’, ‘alien’ or ‘terrorist’. This paper will explore the criminalization of immigration phenomenon broadly by detailing the social forces that have contributed to the convergenceRead MoreSocial Media s Influence On Our Lives1747 Words   |  7 PagesSocial media has had a tremendous impact on our lives, influencing the way we communicate, in teract, and even think. In the 21st century, social media has emerged as a tool utilized in all aspects of life, ranging from entertainment to politics. In the context of politics, the lack of gatekeepers in social media has provided an even playing field for candidates to communicate with the public, and due to the effects this medium had on communication, public discourse has been influenced to fit theRead MoreNationalism And The National Mold Of The Majority Faction957 Words   |  4 Pagesfrom methods of garnering support, to passionate state-based rhetoric, to their association with the Republican Party. Perhaps nationalism’s potential lay in its modern association with freedom. Under the modern Western understanding of government and society, freedom and nationalism are both born and matured through the values of the social contract. But it appears that nationalism and freedom have become conflated in modern politics, primarily within the conservative ideology and the current Republican

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

William Shakespeare s A Midsummer Night s Dream, And...

William Shakespeare is arguably the greatest playwright of modern Western civilization. He wrote 37 plays in his lifetime, all of which have some varying degree of fame, such as Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night’s Dream, and Twelfth Night. Although he has been dead for 400 years, these pieces are still being read and analyzed under scrutiny today. One of the plays that seems to get the most attention is Hamlet. Much of the diction uses double entendre which causes much dispute among critics, and because of this there have been many elements of this play that have been put under a very fine microscope. One of these is the main male characters’ treatment of the women in the play, Gertrude and Ophelia. It is very apparent from the very beginning that on the surface the characters Polonius, Laertes, Claudius, and Hamlet think very little of these women as people, often citing sexual references in a few different ways directly in front of them with total disregard for their feelings, yet they also show true compassion toward them and seem to care for their well-being. These women provide much more, however. Ultimately it can easily be said that, based on the evidence, the entire reason for Hamlet’s, as well as the other male character’s, motives have to do directly with the influence these women have on them, so in many ways these women are responsible for the entire outcome of the play. Though they may appear on the surface to be one-dimensional characters, GertrudeShow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeare s Twelfth Night1502 Words   |  7 PagesThe very ï ¬ rst word following the dramatis personae in the text of William Shakespeare s comedy, Twelfth Night, or What You Will, is Music. The first thing that playgoers hear at the beginning is music. This music is being played for a duke, a powerful lord residing over the setting of all the characters. He is surrounded by other lords and his attendant, Cu rio. The duke, Orsino, cannot help but comment: If music be the food of love, play on, Give me excess of itRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s A Midsummer Night s Dream And Fool1401 Words   |  6 Pagesworks of William Shakespeare. While their individual personalities and functions differ from play to play, the reoccurrence of the Shakespearean fool suggests that fools serve as an important institution of the Shakespearean stage. But what is the role of the Shakespeare’s fools in his works? And how do particular characteristics about these fools help them achieve this purpose? Through an in-depth analysis of Shakespeare’s arguably two most famous fools, Puck (Robin Goodfellow) from A Midsummer Night’sRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Influence On The Course Of World History1440 Words   |  6 PagesWaldo Emerson, a famous essayist inspired by Shakespeare’s works. William Shakespeare was a renowned author, poet, actor, and playwright. He has contributed to many components of life today such as; founding modern English language, contributing to literature, contributing to modern theater, and contributing many of his works to modern English. William Shakespeare has greatly impacted the course of world history. William Shakespeare was believed to be born on April 23,1564, in his hometown of Stratford-upon-AvonRead MoreThe Main Beneficiary In Shakespeare’S Will Was Susanna,1256 Words   |  6 Pagesrelationships. From this it is easy to gather that Shakespeare adored Susanna and loved her dearly. Had he not adored her, she more than likely would not have been mentioned in his will as often as she was and he would not have written plays based on her. William Shakespeare is credited with writing several plays throughout his lifetime. Some are certainly more well known than others. Shakespeare wrote comedies such as Tempest, Twelfth Night, and Midsummer Night’s Dream. Some examples of his tragedies includeRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s English Literature Essay1667 Words   |  7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare has been best known for his poems, plays and masterful piece of writings in the English language. He has been referred to as the England s national poet and the Bard of Avon. He produced over thirty eight plays, hundred fifty four sonnets, five poems, and more verses. Shakespeare s plays consist of mainly tragedies, comedies and histories which are regarded as one of the best in those genres. The plays, the poems, and the sonnets have had a significance influence in EnglishRead MoreSatire : The Fundamental Function Of Satire1644 Words   |  7 PagesPrior to this, the early part of the seventeenth century in England saw the rise of a realistic mode of comedy based on a satiric observation of contemporary manners and customs. Its purpose was didactic: to expose the shortcomings and folly of soci ety s ways. Comedy during the Renaissance was attributed to Cicero, according to Jonson in Every Man Out of his Humour (1599). It was an imitation of life and an image of truth. [7] Following this, the late nineteenth century offered farce as the comicRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare Biography Essay1691 Words   |  7 Pageswas Shakespeare Biography? Who was William Shakespeare? Where was he born? Where did he go to school? How did William Shakespeare live his life from the beginning to the ending? William Shakespeare’s life became a great mystery with lack of evidence to support any findings. His schooling, his family and parents will be revealed in my paper. Who were William Shakespeare’s parents? The parents of Mr. Shakespeare were John Shakespeare and Mary Arden Shakespeare. Mary Arden married William ShakespeareRead MoreWilliam Shakespeare s Sonnets : The Greatest Of All Love Poems1465 Words   |  6 PagesWilliam Shakespeare’s sonnets are considered the greatest of all love poems. The collection contains 154 poems portraying themes of love such as beauty, lust, and estrangement. First published in 1609, these works have remained a popular subject in the world of literature for centuries to come. â€Å"Shakespeare has completely dominated the English-speaking state over the last four hundred years.† When thinking of Shakespeare, his famous plays such Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet are usually the first toRead MoreHow Shakespeare Impacted The British History?1851 Words   |  8 PagesWasemiller 19 February, 2015 How Shakespeare Impacted the British History? Shakespeare’s influence on the British culture in the 21st century remains unwavering. â€Å"Although William Shakespeare is viewed as the quintessential English writer, Shakespeare’s poems and plays have altered the course of European and World literature. The shadow that William Shakespeare has cast over the world has influenced artists, poets, philosophers and thinkers.’ (William Shakespeare- Biography, n.d.). Because of himRead MoreModern-Day Adaptations of Shakespearian Plays3263 Words   |  14 Pages Two Shakespearian plays that have been adapted many times are A Midsummer Nights Dream and Hamlet. Both plays deal with the difference between reality and the semblance of reality and the madness that can occur if we confuse the two. While A Midsummer Nights Dream deals with the reality-distorting drug known as love, Hamlet is about accepting artifice for reality. Two interesting adaptations of A Midsummer Nights Dream are the 1999 film directed by Michael Hoffman and the issue by Neil

Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder - 869 Words

Families with children with autism spectrum disorder(ASD) experiences more stress than the typical family without a children with ASD. A previous research study by Baker-Ericzen, Brookman-Frazee Stahmer(2005, p. 194) supports this statement, â€Å"Both parents of children with ASD report higher levels of both parent and child related stress juxtaposed with parents of typically developing toddlers†. In order to comprehend the information of the study, one must understand what autism spectrum disorder is. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is broad term which is used to describe autism and four other disabilities that affects one s ability to socialize, communicate, and respond to one s environment. Autism is a complex disorder of brain development that is characterized in varying degrees of difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and repetitive behaviors. Some of these symptoms include: a delay or lack in communication and social interaction, violent and disruptive behavior, and inappropriate eating and toileting. ASD is a disorder that impacts males more than females. According to statistics from CDC’s Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network, about 1 in 68 children have been identified with ASD. As this time, there are no known cures for ASD. However, there are many treatment options which may help reduce symptoms and support development and learning. When people think of autism spectrum disorder, they think how theShow MoreRelatedChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1502 Words   |  7 Pagesby a disorder that affects the very things we need to fit in to society. The ability to be able to fit in, communicate and behave in proper ways, allows us to function, work and survive in life. For many children and adults, they live with a disorder that dictates these behaviors and language skills to be very different from the average American. These skills they are challenged with, make it very difficult to live independently. The disorder these individuals live with is called Autism SpectrumRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1125 Words   |  5 PagesIn the last decade, the rate of autism has experienced a dramatic increase (Gerber 1). There used to be a speculation of an apparent correlation between the numbers of vaccines children receive and the increase of autism. A predominant controversy regarding vaccinations was whether or not one of the side effects of vaccines is Autism Spectrum Disorder. The probability of vaccines in children resulting in autism was challenged by various researchers from around the world has proven to be untrue (GerberRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder Essay2241 Words   |  9 PagesAbstract Siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder have received little Research attention historically, with most family studies focusing on either the child with the illness/disorder or the parents. More recently, research has identified that these children may need support in their own right, yet little published research is reported to inform this support. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the extent to which siblings of children with autism spectrum disorder facing psychosocialRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder993 Words   |  4 PagesNational Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Autism is defined as a spectrum disorder (ASD). It refers to a wide range of complex neurodevelopment conditions characterized by repetitive and distinctive patterns of behavior and difficulties with social skills, communication, and interaction. The symptoms start from early childhood and affect daily functioning. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC) approximates ASD’s prevalence as 1 in 68 children in the United States.  The DiagnosticRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1796 Words   |  8 PagesParenting Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Doctors diagnose one in sixty-eight children with Autism Spectrum Disorder every day. Autism Spectrum Disorder is a developmental disorder that affects children’s social skills, communication skills, and their behavior. The symptoms of ASD range from moderate to severe and vary from each child. Raising typical children is difficult, but raising children with disabilities adds to the stress of parenting. There is a strain on parents who have children withRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder949 Words   |  4 PagesAutism Spectrum Disorder is a frightening diagnosis for most families that can bring with it fears of an uncertain future. Support for children with autism and their families is essential because it isn t something that children will just grow out of. It is a life-long condition, but the right treatment, support and care can create a positive outcome for everyone concerned. Diagnosis Early diagnosis is the most important thing you can do to help your child, as it is the first step in understandingRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder1493 Words   |  6 Pagestwo million individuals are affected by autism in the United States and it is one of the fastest growing disorders but with very much research being put behind it. Autism can tend to be one of the most confusing and stressful disorders but yet it is still able to be coped with lots of patience. Imagine being put down or not given an opportunity deserved because of something that is out of one’s control, more specifically children with autism spectrum disorder. Parents have a huge role in preparingRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder2302 Words   |  10 Pagesof all children. Children play for many reasons including learning, exercise, stimulation, and for pure entertainment. They are learning and exploring the world around them by testing out ideas and just having fun playing w ith simple objects. However, like language, play is a skill that develops in stages. As a child gradually learns to understand the world around him or her, they begin to play and learn by engaging in exploratory and manipulative play. This is no different for children withRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder853 Words   |  4 Pageswise) (Green, S., Davis, C., Karshmer, E., Marsh, P., Straight, B, 2005) Autism spectrum disorder pose greater threat to the family because of many reasons like the child with autism spectrum disorder is likely to be accompanied by disruptive antisocial behaviour. Second for the parents the process of make an accurate diagnosis and obtaining treatment is often a frustrating experience. Third after the diagnoses of the disorder the proper access to the services available for the child and family isRead MoreChildren With Autism Spectrum Disorder956 Words   |  4 Pageslives of children with autism spectrum disorder, and the battles the parents have to face. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2015), â€Å"Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a group of complex neurodevelopment disorders characterized by repetitive and characteristic patterns of behavior and difficulties with social communication and interaction.† As someone who lives with an autistic child, the daily challenges faced are enormous. Autistic children tend to have

Discuss the Role of Benjamin and the Sheep in Animal Farm free essay sample

Discuss the role of Benjamin and the Sheep. In the novel ‘Animal Farm’ written by George Orwell both Benjamin the donkey and the sheep are introduced on page two, â€Å"Benjamin was the oldest animal on the farm, and the worst tempered† and â€Å"the sheep and cows lay down behind the pigs. † This is the first introduction of the animals on the farm and it immediately gives the reader an indication about how important they will be in the novel as the sheep have not even been described all the reader knows is where they lay and gives the reader an idea on their status compared to the other animals. Benjamin’s next appearance is on page eighteen when he expresses his attitude towards the rebellion, â€Å"about the rebellion and its results he would express no opinion†. This tells the audience that Benjamin is a bad â€Å"tempered† character but not this it hints to the reader that he has a pessimistic attitude towards life. Benjamin is very important in terms of his opinions towards the rebellion as he helps to foreshadow the rebellion reverting backwards as â€Å"donkeys live a long time. † This tells the reader that he has seen it all happen before and that nothing every stays right for long. Despite Benjamin being a miserable character, he still fought in the batter of the cowshed, Snowball now launched his second line of attack. Muriel, Benjamin and all the sheep. This shows how Benjamin just does what he is told, and that he isnt an argumentative character this could be because of his cynic attitude as he knows everything is going to go wrong anyway because donkeys live a long time. This helps the audience to question whether or not the rebellion will be successful or not as Benjamin is always used to help lower the optimism of the animals throughout the book. Benjamin and the sheep show a good contrast as they are both very similar in the ways that they are controlled and ordered. However the sheep do not have the knowledge which Benjamin knows as they have not seen things come and go. The sheep are in the same line of attack as Benjamin and I think this shows that the animals in this line of attack are very similar. This infers to the reader that if the rebellion was to revert backwards they would all be equally powerless and hopeless. Benjamin’s cynic attitude is maintained throughout the novel and is again shown to be a miserable character, â€Å"only old Benjamin refused to grow enthusiastic about the windmill, though as usual, he would utter nothing beyond a cryptic remark that donkeys live a long time†. This was said on page forty three and it reminds the reader about the possibility of the windmill going wrong and this is playing a big role in the prefiguring of the windmill failing to be built successfully as he has seen many things go wrong in his lifetime. Even thought Benjamin is the â€Å"worst tempered† animal on the farm he still shows a lot of affection towards Boxer, â€Å"without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer. † This was said in his character description on page two and it helps to show Benjamin as a human and it makes the audience think about him in society and the impact that he has. By looking at him like this we are able to start to understand the lack of power these animals have compared to the other human beings in society. This plays a huge role in our understanding of status and higherarky around the farm as we are able to interpret the farm animals as human beings. Benjamin is character that does not like to get involve because he knows something is always going to go wrong, â€Å"Clover asked Benjamin to read her the sixth commandment, and when Benjamin, as usual, said that he refused to meddle in such matters. † This was said on page fifty-six and it shows Benjamin’s pessimistic attitude as he does not want to take any interest into what is going on around him as he knows what is eventually going to happen through his life experiences. Benjamin can sometimes come across as a smug character due to his knowledge and this helps to reinforce to the reader that things are not going to work out on the farm, â€Å"slowly, and with an air almost of amusement, Benjamin nodded his long muzzle†. The word â€Å"amusement† portrays Benjamin to be smug at this moment in the book because he knew that the windmill was going to go wrong. This makes the audience think that every cynical statement that Benjamin says it likely to be true making his function very important as it helps the reader to understand what is going to happen in the following chapters. Benjamin is also seen again on page sixty-eight and we know again that something is going to go wrong again, â€Å"except old Benjamin, who nodded his muzzle with a knowing air, and seemed to understand, but would say nothing. † The reader is now starting to see a trend in Benjamin’s senses, â€Å"with an air almost of amusement† and â€Å"with a knowing air† (page 68) these very similar sentences tell the reader that Benjamin could see all of this happening and that he knew everything was going to go wrong. The role of Benjamin is to help prefigure what is going o happen, so when he urges boxer to slow down on page sixty-nine, â€Å"Benjamin urged Boxer to work less hard† the reader knows straight away that Boxer is going to get seriously hurt. This is very shocking for the reader because his death is prefigured on page five, â€Å"Boxer, the very day that those great muscles of yours lose their power, Jones will sell you to the knacker. † T his shows how close Benjamin and Boxer are but also prefigures the death of Boxer which is done using the knowledge which boxer has retained from his long life. Benjamin has a family like relationship with Boxer, â€Å"Benjamin, who lay down at Boxer’s side, and, without speaking, kept the flies off him with his long tail. † On page seventy-five audience see Benjamin showing his compassion towards Boxer and it helps use see Benjamin as a real person and this plays a big role in how we feel when we read on as when Boxer does get taken away to the knackers we see Benjamin and Boxer as people and it makes it more distressing and more heart breaking for the reader. After Boxer’s death Benjamin becomes more miserable and quiet and his attitude gets worse, â€Å"more morose and taciturn than ever. (page 80) Suddenly Benjamin has become even more cynical possibly because life has got worse than he expected. Benjamin’s role in the novel is to now express the lack of hope there is on the farm especially as Boxer was symbolic of hope and now all hope has gone Benjamin is there to symbolise that to the audience so they are able to understand how bad things are getting on the farm. Benjamin plays a big role on page eighty-four when he reads out the last broken commandment for Clover, â€Å"for once Benjamin consented to break his rule and he read out to her what was written on the wall. This is very striking because Benjamin knew that â€Å"some animals are more equal than others† all along and it is very upsetting for the reader as all hope is lost for the animals and all the animals know that now through the breaking and changing of the commandments. The sheep are used to heckle other farm animals so that it is impossible for any opinions to be raised. The sheep are often heard when Squealer is talking to the other farm animals about changes which have taken place on the farm, â€Å"of late the sheep had taken to bleating ‘four legs good, two legs bad’ both in and out of season†. The sheep are very easily manipulated because of their lack of intelligence and Napoleon was keep to take advantage of this to use it in his favour so Snowball would get interrupted during his speeches, â€Å"especially liable to break into ‘four legs good, two legs bad’ at the crucial moments in Snowball’s speeches. † This was due to Napoleon training them like he did with the dogs. The role of the sheep is to interrupt Snowball so that Napoleon is able to get his own way. The sheep have little knowledge and power on the farm which is why they are the animals to be manipulated to work in Napoleons favour. On Pages twenty-nine, thirty-two, thirty-four and forty the sheep either interrupt Snowball whilst he is talking, â€Å"occasionally interrupted by bleating from the sheep† or they are heard to prevent any discussion developing so that Napoleon is able to get his way, â€Å"tremendous bleating of ’four legs good, two legs bad’ which went on for nearly a quarter of an hour which out an end to any chance of discussion†. The sheep are used to stop the farm animals from asking any questions which could possibly cause the rebellion to progress this allows Napoleon to take charge and to take what the animals work for without questions. The sheep are also potentially used to scare the other farm animals, because the sheep are very easily manipulated it is quite possible that Napoleon had forced them to confess to a crime which that had committed, â€Å"then a sheep confessed to having urinated in the drinking pool – urged to do this, so she said† (page 53). More sheep continued to confess to various crimes and their role is to sacrifice themselves so that the other farm animals would be too scared to stir up a rebellion against Napoleon. The sheep are seen again on page fifty-six carrying out the same role of heckling so that the other animals do not get a chance to protest, â€Å"some of the animals might possibly have protested, but at this moment the sheep set up with their usual bleating of ‘four legs good, two legs bad’†. This ensured that Napoleons decision of the abolishment of ‘Beats of England’ did not get argued against as the moment which they could have possibly said anything had already passed. This role which the sheep undertake is very important in terms of the rebellion reverting backwards as if they didn’t interrupt the positive ideas the Snowball came up with they could be living better lives. Not only this but if they didn’t bleat out ‘four legs good, two legs bad’ after Napoleon makes a change the animals may have been able to rebel to Napoleon’s ideas resulting in a better life for the farm animals. The sheep are very easily manipulated and when they get taken away by squealer on page eighty-three we know something bad is going to happen, â€Å"squealer ordered the sheep to follow him†. We know something bad is going to happen as Napoleon did the same thing with the young puppies from Jessie and Bluebell. The sheep had been taken to convince the other farm animals that walking on two legs was good, â€Å"four legs good, two legs better†. This shows how the pigs are better than the farm animals as they are now walking on their â€Å"hind legs†. The sheep repeat this so much that the animals do not get a chance to protest, â€Å"it went on for five minutes without stopping. And by the time the sheep had quieted down, the chance to utter any protest had passed. This is the sheep’s’ main role so that the pigs are able to do what they want without the other animals protesting allowing the rebellion to revert further and further backwards. Overall, the main role of Benjamin is to prefigure the failure of the rebellion through his pessimistic attitude and through his life experiences as donkeys live a long time. And the sheep are used to help m anipulated the animals into thinking that what the pigs are doing is a good thing but also to prevent them from protesting so that the pigs are able to maintain their power and carry on doing what they want like a dictator would.

Child Custody free essay sample

Every couple enters a relationship with the romantic dream of getting married, starting a family, and living happily ever after. Truth is it may sound all good and well however not all relationships and marriages go the distance. According to the American Psychological Association, 40 to 50 percent of marriages in the United States end in divorce (2014). After the divorce process comes the real complicated part, the child custody process. When a family separates and begins living in different households agreements have to be made regarding the welfare of the children. Child custody has evolved greatly over the years and no longer favors one parent over the other. Assuming society was to once again adopt the customs of ancient times there would be no need for custody hearings because the fathers were responsible for the children. The term used was Patria Potesta which granted the man of the house automatic power over the family. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Custody or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Patria Potesta was mainly based on the fact that families worked the land they also lived on so the fathers were able to supervise the family while working. Things would change dramatically following the industrial revolution. Men no longer worked their own land instead they now worked in factories in nearby cities. This shifted the balance of child custody because now mothers were the primary keeper of the household. â€Å"With the mothers dominant at home and responsible for meeting the children’s needs throughout the day the view point developed that a mother’s continuing presence was indispensable for the physical and emotional well-being of the minor children†. (Luppino, 2012) In the years to follow the balance would once again shift this time to a mutual benefit. Women were now given better job opportunities so they worked outside of the home and quickly became bread winners of the house. So now the concept of the mother being indispensable because of her dominant presence at home was no longer a valid argument for most working women. With men and women now both being financial supporters of their households child custody decision had to be made based on what was best for the child not just who was around the house more. To determine child custody courts applied the Tender Years Doctrine which was later renamed to Best Interest of the child. The courts needed some kind of structure to base the best placement for the children. In some cases it can be easy to determine where the children should reside because the parents are on mutual agreeing terms and then the official judgment is made. When the parents are not on agreeing terms the courts have to step in and make the decisions for them using the best interest of the child doctrine: ARIZONA REVISED STATUTES ANNOTATED (WEST) 25. 403. Custody; Best Interest of Child. . . . A. The court shall determine custody, either originally or upon petition for modification, in accordance with the best interests of the child. The court shall consider all relevant factors, including: 1. The wishes of the child’s parent or parents as to custody. 2. The wishes of the child as to the custodian. 3. The interaction and interrelationship of the child with the child’s parent or parents, the child’s siblings and any other person who may significantly affect the child’s best interest. 4. The child’s adjustment to home, school and community. 5. The mental and physical health of all individuals involved. 6. Which parent is more likely to allow the child frequent and meaningful continuing contact with the other parent. 7. If one parent, both parents, or neither parent has provided primary care of the child. 8. The nature and extent of coercion or duress used by a parent in obtaining an agreement regarding custody. 9. Whether a parent has complied with Chapter 3 article 5 of this title. (p. 200-201) Keep in mind that though all states share the same overall concern for the children, each state has their own set of child custody rules. When dealing with so many different states it would only make sense to devise a system to oversee and govern state court decisions. That is where the Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act come in to play. The Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act (UCCJEA) is a Uniform Act written by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws in 1997. The UCCJEA governs state courts’ jurisdiction to create and modify â€Å"child-custody determinations,† a term that expressly includes custody and visitation orders. † This requires state courts to enforce valid child-custody and visitation determinations created by sister state courts. It additionally establishes innovative interstate enforcement procedures. (Kidnapping, 2002) The UCCJEA applies to a variety of proceedings during which custody or visitation is at issue; Consent to temporary enforcement of visitation determinations; Consent to courts to exercise emergency jurisdiction in cases involving family abuse and limits the relief offered in emergency cases to temporary custody orders; Set up a registration procedure for out of State custody determinations. Also it establishes a procedure for quick interstate enforcement of custody and visitation determinations. The UCCJEA replaced the â€Å"Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction Act†, as a result of the recent act was inconsistent with the federal Parental Kidnapping Prevention Act. The UCCJEA corrects these issues. The UCCJEA additionally, conjointly uniform procedures to register and enforce child-custody orders across state lines. (Kidnapping, 2002) The UCCJEA needs State courts to acknowledge and enforce custody determinations created by foreign courts underneath factual circumstances that well adjust with the UCCJEA’s territorial standards. A state court does not have to enforce an overseas judicial writ if the child-custody law of the foreign country violates basic principles of human rights. The UCCJEA is a uniform state law concerning jurisdiction in child custody cases. It specifies which court ought to decide a custody case, not however the court should decide the case. The UCCJEA sets forth four bases for jurisdiction: home state, important connection, a lot of acceptable forum and no alternative state jurisdiction. The UCCJEA prioritizes home state jurisdiction, and, except in emergencies, a court might not exercise jurisdiction if a proceeding is pending elsewhere in keeping with the UCCJEA (Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act, 2003). â€Å"Home state: the home state is that the state wherever the child lived with a parent or someone acting as a parent for a minimum of six months directly before the custody action was filed. Home state jurisdiction exists within the child’s current home state or in a state that was the child’s home state at intervals six months before the case began. † â€Å"Significant connection: is when a state has important connection jurisdiction if the child and at least one parent have a major connection with the state. There should be substantial proof within the state regarding the child’s care, protection, training, and personal relationships. â€Å"More appropriate forum: this kind of jurisdiction exists once each the home state and also the important association jurisdiction have declined to exercise jurisdiction on the grounds that a court of another state is that the more appropriate forum. † â€Å"No Other State Jurisdiction: this kind of jurisdiction exists once no court of any other state would have home state, important connection or additional acceptable forum jurisdiction. † â€Å"Emergency: A court could exercise emergency jurisdiction if the child is present within the state and also the child has been abandoned or its necessary in an emergency to safeguard the child as a result of the child or a family member of the child is subjected to and/or threatened with neglect or abuse. Emergency jurisdiction is temporary, however under certain circumstances, such orders will be final. † The UCCJEA urges courts in other jurisdictions to communicate once one court exercises emergency jurisdiction so as to resolve the emergency, the protection of the child, and confirm the length of the temporary order. Generally, the parties should have a chance to be heard before a jurisdictional decision is formed, and also the courts should create a record of the communication. Judicial communications are often crucial to victim safety in domestic violence cases as a result of it ensures that a court isnt receiving info solely from the offender (Uniform Child Custody Jurisdiction and Enforcement Act, 2003). Parental custody hearings are not just black and white; meaning one parent wins and the other parents loses. There are different types of parental custody such as Sole custody, joint custody, joint legal and physical custody or split custody. When a parent wins sole custody of their child/children they are responsible for making all decisions. The other parent may not have contact with the child unless given permission by the courts or guardian with sole custody. Joint custody means that both parents are responsible for making decisions for their child/children. Being responsible for a child or children means financially, emotionally, health, and educational needs. With joint custody both parents have to agree on how and where the child is to be raised. If one parent decides to move the child out of the state he or she must first consult the other parent when having joint custody. Joint custody can only be granted if both parents are on good standing and have great communication with each other. Although joint custody means both parents are equally responsible for the children one parent will still be the custodial parent. The children will live with the custodial parent and the non-custodial parent will have to pay child support. Joint legal and physical custody also gives both mother and father equal responsibility to make decisions for the children. What makes joint legal and physical custody different from joint custody is there will be no custodial parent. The children with live with both parents switching houses throughout the week. In most cases joint legal and physical custody does not require a single parent to pay child support because both parents are housing the children. This kind of custody arrangement can only work if both the mother and father live near each other. That way the children will be able to maintain their normal routine of going to school, doctor, friends or anything else the child would normally do. Split custody also gives both parents rights over the child; however it is a bit different than joint custody. Each parent will have the child at a different point of the year. For instance the mother will have custody from January to July and the father will have custody the rest of the year. When the parent has the child during their designated time they have sole custody and make all the decisions during that time. Parents who are not awarded custody still can seek visitation rights assuming they meet the criteria. In some cases neither the father nor the mother will be awarded custody of the children. Sometimes a third party such as a grandmother, grandfather, stepparents, former stepparents, or blood relatives can be awarded custody. The following case Bailes v. Sours is an example: â€Å"Bailes v. Sours, 231 Va. 96, 340 S. E. 2d 824 (1986) In Bailes, the Virginia Supreme Court established the parental presumption standard. The child was born in May 1972, the parents separated in June 1973, and the child lived with his father. In February 1974, the trial court awarded custody to the father and the mother was granted reasonable visitation rights. In October 1975, the father remarried and the boy lived with his father and stepmother until his father’s death in 1983. The boy thereafter resided with his stepmother. The mother would visit her son but he expressed reservations, and she said that she would not force the visits on him. He also experienced bedwetting and psychological problems in connection with the visits. The mother visited her son only eight or ten times in a nine-year period. In the meantime, the boy continued to have a close and loving relationship with his stepmother. The mother sought custody. The trial court found both women to be fit and proper persons to have custody. The mother asked for the parental presumption. The trial court found the presumption rebutted by clear, cogent and convincing evidence that the best interests of the boy demanded that he remain in the stepmother’s custody. The Virginia Supreme Court agreed. Although the presumption favoring a parent over a nonparent is a strong one, it is rebutted when certain factors are established by clear and convincing evidence. These factors are (1) parental unfitness, (2) a previous order of divestiture, (3) voluntary relinquishment, (4) abandonment, and (5) special facts and circumstances constituting an extraordinary reason for taking a child from its parent. Here the presence of extraordinary circumstances rebutted the presumption. The mother was virtually a stranger to her son. The boy had known no other home than with the stepmother. The boy, twelve years old at the time of trial, expressed a strong desire to stay with the stepmother. The psychologist concluded that to transfer the boy’s custody would have a significant, harmful, long-term impact on him† (Raynor, 2011) The fact that the child showed physical signs of distress by wetting the bed proved it would not be in his best interest to live with the mother. The stepmother has a legitimate interest in the child and the child feels more comfortable with her, this making the stepmother the best custodial guardian. A parent has the right to appeal decision made by the courts if they feel an unfair judgment was delivered. This was the case in Ferris v Underwood: Ferris v. Underwood, 3 Va. App. 25, 348 S. E. 2d 18 (1986). In Ferris, the parents were married in March 1979 and a daughter was born in March 1981. In March 1982, the mother and child left the marital home. In January 1983, custody was granted to the paternal grandmother. The court order cited the youthfulness of the parents as a reason to grant custody to the grandmother, and provided that â€Å"neither parent has waived, abandoned, or in any other manner relinquished the relationship of the natural child to its natural parent. † The parents were divorced in 1985. The mother remarried and petitioned for custody, which was granted. The grandmother appealed. The grandmother, in her brief, contended that the issue was whether the best interests of the child would be served by the transfer of custody to the mother. She maintained that the trial court applied the wrong test in reaching its determination of the best interests of the child. The Virginia Court of Appeals disagreed and affirmed the trial court ruling. It noted that the Virginia Supreme Court has recognized that the law presumes that the childs best interests (Raynor, 2011) This brings us to visitation and how schedules are made for the non-custodial parents. There are two types of visitation reasonable and fixed. Reasonable visitation means that both parents were able to agree to set dates and times for visitation. This gives the parents a chance to make a convenient visitation schedule. Those who cannot come to a mutual schedule understanding will have the courts intervene and set up the times and dates for the visit. No parent will be allowed visitation if the courts feel the child’s health will be at risk. After being awarded visitation it may be supervised or unsupervised. Unsupervised and supervised visitations are pretty much self-explained. If you are granted unsupervised visitation you may do as you please with your child assuming it is child appropriate. Supervised visitation on the other hand requires a person be present when the non-custodial parent was having visitation. Parents who are granted supervised visitation often have a negative reputation with law enforcement, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, or mental health. It is no secret that child custody disputes can be very stressful and time consuming and so it should be. This decision will determine the welfare of children and must take every detail into consideration. Conclusion: When trying to figure out what is best for the child, the parents need to come together and stop arguing over who is the better parent. Having joint custody with each parent having the same amount of time with the child is what is best as long each parent can provide and maintain a safe and happy home. Parents have to understand that each of them is divorcing one another and not divorcing the child. It will not be easy on the child at first and each parent must understand what the child is going through and not just worry about themselves. The child must come first and the parents have got to leave their hatred for each other outside and not display their anger towards one another. Sometimes it’s sad when the child acts more grown up than the parents. Keep it civil, no bad talking about each other to the child or in front of the child.

Tuesday, April 21, 2020

Name ____________________________________________ Essays (603 words)

Name: _______________________________________________________ Date:_________________________________ . At the opening of the play, what are the plebeians celebrating? Octavius' victory over Brutus Caesar becoming King Caesar's marriage to Calpurnia Caesar's victory over Pompey The plebeians are: elected officials in the Roman senate relatives of Caesar the ruling class of Rome members of the lower classes "Beware the ides of March" is stated by whom? Cassius Calpurnia Brutus A soothsayer Who leads the conspiracy against Caesar? Brutus Antony Cinna Cassius Who states the following: " Accoutred as I was, I plunged in / And bade him follow; so indeed he did." Portia Brutus Antony Cassius Portia is the wife of whom? Cinna Caesar Flavius Brutus To convince Brutus to join him, what does the lead conspirator plant in his house? an eagle Senate documents outlining Caesar's betrayal a bloody knife an anonymous letter decrying Caesar's rule How many times does Caesar refuse the crown? twice once never three Who offers Caesar the crown? Cicero Casca Brutus Antony What happens to Caesar after refusing the crown? Calpurnia dies he becomes King the crowd runs him off he falls in the market place Who states the following: "Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears." Caesar Brutus Cicero Antony When is the ides of March? March 31 March 14 March 1 March 15 Who states the following: "Tell me, good Brutus, can you see your face?" Caesar Portia Decius Cassius What almost keeps Caesar from attending Senate on the day of his death? Antony's warning Calpurnia's illness Decius' warning Calpurnia's bad dream What does Portia do to prove her strength to Brutus? Tells him she loves him Shows him the best way to deceive Caesar She does nothing She cuts herself The crowd is outraged and start an angry mob after Antony's speech. True False According to Brutus' speech, Caesar had to die because he was ambitious. True False Antony is given permission to speak at Caesar's funeral by the conspirators. True False Calpurnia wants Caesar to stay home because she had a bad dream. True False Et tu , Brute means "And you to, Brutus." True False Cassius tells all of the conspirators to bathe their hands in Caesar's blood. True False Cassius tells Antony he must not say anything bad about the conspirators. True False Brutus does not think Antony should speak at Caesar's funeral. True False Caesar reads Artemidorus's letter first. True False Portia is worried about Brutus because he talks with her daily. True False Brutus says there is no need to kill Antony because it would be like being a butcher. True False Brutus disagrees with taking an oath because he doesn't think it is right for honorable men to take an oath. True False Brutus thinks Caesar will abuse his power if he is crowned king. True False The soothsayer states "Beware the Ides of March." True False Lupercal is a Roman festival held on February 15 th . True False Choose one Essay and write a 5 paragraph essay on the following pages (25%)